The binomial of interaction and visualization in digital news media: consolidation, standardization and future challenges [article]

Click to download


Interaction and visualization together yield an interesting, fruitful, and promising combination for producing content in digital news media. In an era in which the press no longer exclusively provides the news, interaction and visualization combined in innovative products for the public are powerful value propositions for the media. Together, they are capable of winning readers’ loyalty and engagement, both of which are crucial for the media’s sustainability.

In this work, we present a review of the literature and formulate the theoretical bases for this binomial pairing and its main components, which, we argue, should be available to citizens, the interests of whom journalism must defend if it aspires to be viable.


Interactive visualizations; Digital journalism; Cyberjournalism; Online media; InfoVis; Digital media; Interactive documentary; Journalistic innovation; Interactive storytelling.

Introduction: the binomial of interaction and visualization, a successful pairing

On 23 March 2020, just a few days after the WHO declared the world Covid-19 pandemic, Navid Mamoon and Gabriel Rasskin, two students from Carnegie Mellon University, launched CovidVisualizer, an interactive visualization application for practically real-time consultation, using a 3D recreation of the globe, of the number of Covid-19 victims and people affected in every country in the world (Figure 1). In just a few weeks it had 70 million users. CovidViualizer is just one of numerous interfaces (Jacob, 2020; Cascón-Katchadourian, 2020; Pérez-Montoro, 2021) that have been created to facilitate understanding and with which to consult the statistical data constantly being recorded about the pandemic.

Its success is the result of its authors’ skill in designing a device that efficiently combines visualization and interaction. Interactivity, in other words, enables users to explore maps and to establish their own visual narrative. The media, national agencies and research centres have used interactive resources to construct a narrative of the epidemic with a focus on the aspects about it that are considered most significant (Danielson, 2020). They have offset biased information (Bowe; Simmons; Mattern, 2020) and used visualizations as models with which to forecast the pandemic’s evolution (Chen et al., 2020), often revealing how hard it is to standardize and to validate sources of information (Ferrer-Sapena et al., 2020).

Pairing interactivity and visualization as a binomial enhances the media’s credibility and increases engagement with users, as it places them at the core of processes of access, dialogue, and relation with data through interfaces (McKenna et al., 2017; Pérez-Montoro; Freixa, 2018).

Thus, for example, in social communication, in contrast with traditional media in which the text of an article of journalism might have told a story using graphs and images to back it up or to endorse what was being narrated, these no longer play such a secondary role in new digital media. Because of their interactive nature, these visual products now occupy a predominant place in telling a story (Pérez-Montoro, 2018). That, at least, is the aspiration of media such as The New York Times, the 2020 targets of which included improving visuals in reports and exploring new dynamics of audience interaction (Leonhardt et al., 2017).

Table sample from the article. Partial view. Click to access

Recognizing the core significance of interaction and visualization in increasingly rich and complex information processes allows for reappraisal of both the practices and the systems that we establish for them to take place. The digital ecosystem has generated its own dynamics that call into question the relationships established among information, what is perceived as narrative, the curation of diverse contents and forms of access, consumption, and participation. It also makes it possible to explore what roles the agents who interact and engage with information should, can or are required to play: journalists, documentalists, information curators, audiences, researchers, informing communities, media, and receiving society (Freixa; Pérez-Montoro; Codina, 2020).

Emphasizing the core significance of pairing interaction and visualization also raises questions about how digital text, in a broad sense, is defined, designed, produced, consumed and analysed: multimedia, mutable, modifiable and transmedia.

Use of interactive visualizations in the media has become common practice. They have been consolidated largely because of the standardization both of their formats and of their development, which is a factor that has allowed for a reduction in production costs and more widespread use in newsrooms, as simplification of processes has facilitated their application by editors and journalists who do not have specific training in programming or interaction design.

The consolidation of standardized interactive resources in most newsrooms has released centres of journalistic innovation from the tasks of producing informative content that generally hitherto occupied them. This general circumstance is yielding some interesting consequences:

First, the standard use of interactive visualizations in all kinds of media plays a significant role in enhancing the literacy of the newsrooms themselves and, particularly, of the audience (Bresciani; Eppler, 2015). The understanding maps, graphics, and interactive galleries is becoming standard practice and expanding among users, who would otherwise probably be unaware of their potential for articulating informative narratives.

Second, it gives research centres the freedom to concentrate on investigating, exploring, and imagining a
new generation of interactive audio-visual resources, which are the methods of communication we shall discover and use in the coming decade.



How to cite this article

Freixa, Pere; Pérez-Montoro, Mario; Codina, Lluís (2021). “The binomial of interaction and visualization in digital news media: consolidation, standardization and future challenges”. Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 4, e300401.


  • Aarseth, Espen J. (1997). Cybertext: Perspectives on ergodic literature. Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN: 978 0 8018 5579 5
  • Aitamurto, Tanja; Aymerich-Franch, Laura; Saldívar, Jorge; Kircos, Catherine; Sadeghi, Yasamin; Sakshuwong, Sukolsak (2020). “Examining augmented reality in journalism: Presence, knowledge gain, and perceived visual authenticity”. New media & society, online first.
  • Albers, Michael J. (2015). “Infographics and communicating complex information”. In: Marcus Aaron (ed.). Design, user experience, and usability: Users and interactions, pp. 267-276. Cham: Springer.
  • Alexander, Stephanie; Vetere, Colleen (2011). “Telling the data story the right way”. Healthcare financial management, v. 65, n. 10, pp. 104-110.
  • Amit-Danhi, Eedan R.; Shifman, Limor (2018). “Digital political infographics: A rhetorical palette of an emergent genre”. New media & society, v. 20, n. 10, pp. 3540-3559.
  • Apablaza-Campos, Alexis; Codina, Lluís; Pedraza-Jiménez, Rafael (2018). “Newsonomics in the interactive era: Dimensions of sustainability in the news media”. In: Pérez-Montoro, Mario (ed.). Interaction in digital news media. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan (Springer), pp. 115-146.
  • Appelgren, Ester (2018). “An illusion of interactivity: The paternalistic side of data journalism”. Journalism practice, v. 12, n. 3, pp. 308-325.
  • Appelgren, Ester; Nygren, Gunnar (2014). “Data journalism in Sweden: Introducing new methods and genres of journalism into “old” organizations”. Digital journalism, v. 2, n. 3, pp. 394-405.
  • Aston, Judith Y. (2003). Interactive multimedia: an investigation into its potential for communicating ideas and arguments. [Doctoral thesis]. London: Royal College of Art.
  • Bachmann, Ingrid; Harlow, Summer (2012). “Interactividad y multimedialidad en periódicos latinoamericanos: avances en una transición incompleta”. Cuadernos de información, n. 30, pp. 41-52.
  • Barlow, Mike (2014). Data visualization: A new language for storytelling. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media. ISBN: 978 1 491 94503 2
  • Barredo-Ibáñez, Daniel; Díaz-Cerveró, Elba (2017): “La interactividad en el periodismo digital latinoamericano. Un análisis de los principales cibermedios de Colombia, México y Ecuador (2016)”. Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 72, pp. 273-294.
  • Boczkowski, Pablo J. (2004). “The processes of adopting multimedia and interactivity in three online newsrooms”. Journal of communication, v. 54, n. 2, pp. 197-213.
  • Bowe, Emily; Simmons, Erin; Mattern, Shannon (2020). “Learning from lines: Critical Covid data visualizations and the quarantine quotidian”. Big data & society, v. 7, n. 2, 2053951720939236.
  • Bresciani, Sabrina; Eppler, Martin J. (2015). “The pitfalls of visual representations: A review and classification of common errors made while designing and interpreting visualizations”. Sage open, v. 5, n. 4.
  • Burmester, Michael; Mast, Marcus; Tille, Ralph; Weber, Wibke (2010). “How users perceive and use interactive information graphics: An exploratory study.” IEEE Proceedings of the 14th international conference information visualization (IV 10), London, pp. 361-368.
  • Cairo, Alberto (2012). The functional art: An introduction to information graphics and visualization. Berkeley: New Riders. ISBN: 978 0 321834737
  • Cairo, Alberto (2017a). “Visualización de datos: una imagen puede valer más que mil números, pero no siempre más que mil palabras”. El profesional de la información, v. 26, n. 6, pp. 1025-1028.
  • Cairo, Alberto (2017b). Nerd journalism: How data and digital technology transformed news graphics. Barcelona: Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.
  • Caminero-Fernández, Lidia; Sánchez-García, Pilar (2018). “El perfil y formación del ciberperiodista en redacciones nativas digitales”., n. 16, pp. 4-15.
  • Cascón-Katchadourian, Jesús-Daniel (2020). “Tecnologias para luchar contra la pandemia Covid-19: geolocalización, rastreo, big data, SIG, inteligencia artificial y privacidad”. El profesional de la informacion, v. 29, n. 4, e290429.
  • Caswell, David (2019). “Editorial innovation in news”. BBC News Lab., 14 February.
  • Chen, Baoquan; Shi, Mingyi; Ni, Xingyu; Ruan, Liangwang; Jiang, Hongda; Yao, Heyuan; Wang, Mengdi; Song, Zhenhua; Zhou, Qiang; Ge, Tong (2020). “Visual data analysis and simulation prediction for Covid-19”. International journal of educational excellence, v. 6, n. 1, pp. 95-114.
  • Chen, Zhirui; Guo, Wenchen (2020). “Innovative research on the improvement of visual quality of data journalism in China: Visual language and interaction design”. Journal of physics: Conference series, 1518 012030.
  • Codina, Lluís; Iglesias-García, Mar; Pedraza-Jiménez, Rafael; García-Carretero, Lucía (2016). Search engine optimization and online journalism: The SEO-WCP framework. Barcelona: UPF. Departamento de Comunicación. Serie Editorial DigiDoc.
  • Córdoba-Cabús, Alba (2020). “Estándares de calidad en el periodismo de datos: fuentes, narrativas y visualizaciones en los Data Journalism Awards 2019”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 3, e290328.
  • Cover, Rob (2006). “Audience inter/active: Interactive media, narrative control and reconceiving audience history”. New media & society, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 139-158.
  • Danielson, Megan (2020). “Notable maps visualizing Covid-19 and surrounding impact”. Medium, 12 March.
  • De-la-Peña, Nonny; Weil, Peggy; Llobera, Joan; Giannopoulos, Elias; Pomés, Ausiàs; Spanlang, Bernhard; Friedman, Doron; Sánchez-Vives, María V.; Slater, Mel (2010). “Immersive journalism: immersive virtual reality for the first-person experience of news”. Presence, v. 19, n. 4, pp. 291-301.
  • De-Maeyer, Juliette; Libert, Manon; Domingo, David; Heinderyckx, François; Le-Cam, Florence (2015). “Waiting for data journalism”. Digital journalism, v. 3, n. 3, pp. 432-446.
  • Domingo, David (2008). “Interactivity in the daily routines of online newsrooms: Dealing with an uncomfortable myth”. Journal of computer-mediated communication, v. 13, n. 3, pp. 680-704.
  • Dowling, David (2019). Immersive longform storytelling: Media, technology, audience. New York: Routledge. ISBN: 978 1 138595422
  • Engebretsen, Martin; Kennedy, Helen; Weber, Wibke (2018). “Data visualization in Scandinavian newsrooms. Emerging trends in journalistic visualization practices”. Nordicom review, v. 39, n. 2, pp. 3-18.
  • Ferreras-Rodríguez, Eva-María (2013). “Aproximación teórica al perfil profesional del ‘Periodista de datos’”. Icono 14, v. 11, n. 2, pp. 115-140.
  • Ferrer-Sapena, Antonia; Calabuig, José-Manuel; Peset, Fernanda; Sánchez-del-Toro, Isabel (2020). “Trabajar con datos abiertos en tiempos de pandemia: uso de covidDATA-19”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 4, e290421.
  • Few, Stephen (2012). Show me the numbers. Oakland: Analytics Press. ISBN: 0970601972
  • Fink, Katherine; Anderson, Christopher W. (2015). “Data journalism in the United States”. Journalism studies, v. 16, n. 4, pp. 467-481.
  • Freixa, Pere (2018). “Content access, storytelling, and interactive media”. In: Pérez-Montoro, Mario (ed.). Interaction in digital news media, pp. 9-31. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Freixa, Pere; Pérez-Montoro, Mario; Codina, Lluís (2020). “Active audiences and structured journalism: Questions, doubts and good practices”. In: Peña-Fernández, S.; Meso-Ayerdi, K.; Larrondo-Ureta, A. (eds.). Active audiences: Empowering citizens? Discourse in the hybrid media system. McGrawHill. ISBN: 978 84 48620035
  • Freixa, Pere; Sora, Carles; Soler-Adillon, Joan; Ribas, J. Ignasi (2014). “Snow fall y A short history of the highrise: dos modelos de comunicación audiovisual interactiva del New York Times”. Textual & visual media, n. 7, pp. 185-206.
  • García-Avilés, José-Alberto (2021). “Review article: Journalism innovation research, a diverse and flourishing field (2000-2020)”. Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 1, e300110.
  • Greussing, Esther; Kessler, Sabrina-Heike; Boomgaarden, Hajo G. (2020). “Learning from science news via interactive and animated data visualizations: An investigation combining eye tracking, online survey, and cued retrospective reporting”. Science communication, v. 42, n. 6, pp. 803-828.
  • Guallar, Javier; Codina, Lluís (2018). “Journalistic content curation and news librarianship: Differential characteristics and necessary convergence”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 4, pp. 778-791.
  • Hiippala, Tuomo (2017). “The multimodality of digital longform journalism”. Digital journalism, v. 5, n. 4, pp. 420-442.
  • Howe, Jeff; Bajak, Aleszu; Kraft, Dina; Wihbey, John (2017). “Collaborative, open, mobile: A thematic exploration of best practices at the forefront of digital journalism”. SSRN 3036984.
  • Jacob, Rachel (2020). “Visualising global pandemic: a content analysis of infographics on Covid-19”. Journal of content, community & communication, v. 11, pp. 116-123.
  • Jacobson, Susan; Marino, Jacqueline; Gutsche, Robert E. (2015). “The digital animation of literary journalism”. Journalism, v. 17, n. 4, pp. 527-546.
  • Jensen, Jens F. (1998). “Interactivity: Tracking a new concept in media and communications studies”. Nordicom review, n. 19, pp. 85-202.
  • Kalatzi, Olga; Bratsas, Charalampos; Veglis, Andreas (2018). “The principles features and techniques of data journalism”. Studies in media and communication, v. 6, n. 2, pp. 36-44.
  • Karlsen, Joakim; Stavelin, Eirik (2014). “Computational journalism in Norwegian newsrooms”. Journalism practice, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 34-48.
  • Kasica, Stephen; Berret, Charles; Munzner, Tamara (2020). “Table scraps: an actionable framework for multi-table data wrangling from an artifact study of computational journalism”. IEEE Transactions on visualization and computer graphics, v. 27, n. 2, pp. 957-966.
  • Kim, Won; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Hong, Eui-Kyeong; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Doheon. (2003). “A taxonomy of dirty data”. Data mining and knowledge discovery, v. 7, n. 1, pp. 81-99.
  • Kirk, Andy (2016). Data visualization. A handbook for data driven design. London: SAGE. ISBN: 978 1 526468925
  • Klanten, Robert; Ehmann, Sven; Schulze, Floyd (2011). Visual storytelling: Inspiring a new visual language. Berlin: Gestalten. ISBN: 978 3 899553758
  • Knight, Megan (2015). “Data journalism in the UK: A preliminary analysis of form and content”. Journal of media practice, v. 16, n. 1, pp. 55-72.
  • Landow, George P. (1991). HyperText: the convergence of contemporary critical theory and technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN: 978 0 801842801
  • Lee, Bongshin; Riche, Nathalie-Henry; Isenberg, Petra; Carpendale, Sheelagh (2015). “More than telling a story: Transforming data into visually shared stories”. IEEE Computer graphics and applications, v. 35, n. 5, pp. 84-90.
  • Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim Ye-Weon (2016). “Effects of infographics on news elaboration, acquisition, and evaluation: Prior knowledge and issue involvement as moderators”. New media & society, v. 18, n. 8, pp. 1579-1598.
  • Leonhardt, David; Rudoren, Jodi; Galinsky, Jon; Skog, Karron; Lacey, Marc; Giratikanon, Tom; Evans, Tyson (2017). Journalism that stands apart. The report of the 2020 Group.
  • Lewis, Norman P.; Al-Nashmi, Eisa (2019). “Data journalism in the Arab region: Role conflict exposed”. Digital journalism, v. 7, n. 9, pp. 1200-1214.
  • Link, Elena; Henke, Jakob; Möhring, Wiebke (2021). “Credibility and enjoyment through data? Effects of statistical information and data visualizations on message credibility and reading experience”. Journalism studies, v. 22, n. 5, pp. 575-594.
  • Loosen, Wiebke; Reimer, Julius; De-Silva-Schmidt, Fenja (2020). “Data-driven reporting: An on-going (r)evolution? An analysis of projects nominated for the Data Journalism Awards 2013-2016”. Journalism. v. 21, n. 9, pp. 1246-1263.
  • López-García, Xosé; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ana-Isabel; Pereira-Fariña, Xosé (2017). “Competencias tecnológicas y nuevos perfiles profesionales: desafíos del periodismo actual”. Comunicar, v. 25, n. 53, pp. 81-90.
  • Lopezosa, Carlos; Codina, Lluís; Díaz-Noci, Javier; Ontalba, José-Antonio (2020). “SEO and the digital news media: From the workplace to the classroom”. Comunicar, v. 63, pp. 65-75.
  • McCandless, David (2014). Knowledge is beautiful: Impossible ideas, invisible patterns, hidden connections. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN: 978 0 062188229
  • McKenna, Sean; Henry Riche, Nathalie; Lee, Bongshin; Boy, Jeremy; Meyer, Miriah (2017). “Visual narrative flow: Exploring factors shaping data visualization story reading experiences”. Eurographics conference on visualization (EuroVis), v. 36, n. 3, pp. 377-387.
  • Mcmillan, Sally J. (2002). “A four-part model of cyber-interactivity: Some cyber-places are more interactive than others”. New media & society, v. 4, n. 2, pp. 271-291.
  • McNutt, Andrew; Kindlmann, Gordon; Correll, Michael (2020). “Surfacing visualization mirages”. In: Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on human factors in computing systems, 16 pp. ISBN: 978 1 4503 6708 0
  • Nash, Kate (2014). “Clicking on the world: documentary representation and interactivity”. In: K. Nash; C. Hight; C. Summerhayes (eds.) New documentary ecologies, pp. 50-66. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 978 1 137 31049 1
  • Nelson, Theodor H. (1983). Literary machines: The report on, and of, Project Xanadu, concerning word processing, electronic publishing, hypertext, thinkertoys, tomorrow’s intellectual revolution, and certain other topics including knowledge, education and freedom. Self-edited. 1992 edition by Mindful Press. ISBN: 978 0 893470623
  • Newman, Nic (2021). Journalism, media, and technology trends and predictions 2021. Oxford: Reuters Institute, University of Oxford.
  • Oh, Jeeyun; Hwang, Angel-Hsung-Chi; Lim, Hayoung-Sally (2020). “How interactive data visualization and users’ BMI (body mass index) influence obesity prevention intentions: The mediating effect of cognitive absorption”. Health communication.
  • Ojo, Adegboyega; Heravi, Bahareh (2018). “Patterns in award winning data storytelling”. Digital journalism, v. 6, n. 6, pp. 693-718.
  • Palau-Sampio, Dolors; Sánchez-García, Pilar (2020). “Digital resources in the current journalistic narrative: Uses and limitations of hypertext, multimedia and interactivity”. Communication & society, v. 33, n. 2, pp. 1-16.
  • Parasie, Sylvain (2015). “Data-driven revelation? Epistemological tensions in investigative journalism in the age of ‘big data’”. Digital journalism, v. 3, n. 3, pp. 364-380.
  • Parasie, Sylvain; Dagiral, Eric (2013). “Data-driven journalism and the public good: ‘Computer-assisted-reporters’ and ‘Programmer-journalists’ in Chicago”. New media & society, v. 15, n. 6, pp. 853-871.
  • Paucar-Carrión, Katty; Coronel-Salas, Gabriela (2019). “Laboratorios: un recurso para la innovación periodística”. Revista ibérica de sistemas e tecnologias de informação, n. E20, pp. 477-489.
  • Pavlik, John V. (2001). Journalism and new media. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN: 978 0 231114837
  • Pentzold, Christian; Fechner, Denise (2020). “Data journalism’s many futures: Diagrammatic displays and prospective probabilities in data-driven news predictions”. Convergence: The international journal of research into new media technologies, v. 26, n. 4, pp. 732- 750.
  • Pérez-Montoro, Mario (2018) (ed.). Interaction in digital news media: From principles to practice. London, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan (Springer Nature). ISBN: 978 3 319 96252 8
  • Pérez-Montoro, Mario (2021). “Comunicación visual de una emergencia sanitaria mundial: el caso de la Covid-19”. Anuario ThinkEPI, v. 15, e15d01.
  • Pérez-Montoro, Mario; Codina, Lluís (2017). Navigation design and SEO for content-intensive websites: A guide for an efficient digital communication. Oxford: Chandos Publishing (Elsevier). ISBN: 978 0 081006764
  • Pérez-Montoro, Mario; Freixa, Pere (2018). “Interaction in digital news media: Trends, challenges, and lessons learned”. In: Pérez-Montoro, Mario (ed.). Interaction in digital news media. London, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan (Springer Nature), pp. 193-201. ISBN: 978 3 319 96252 8
  • Plaisant, Catherine (2004). “The challenge of information visualization evaluation”. AVI ‘04 Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces, pp. 109-116. New York: ACM.
  • Planer, Rosanna; Godulla, Alexander (2021). “Longform journalism in the USA and Germany: Patterns in award-winning digital storytelling productions”. Journalism practice, v. 15, n. 4, pp. 566-582.
  • Porlezza, Colin; Splendore, Sergio (2019). “From open journalism to closed data: Data journalism in Italy”. Digital journalism, v. 7, n. 9, pp. 1230-1252.
  • Pouchard, Line; Barton, Amy; Zilinski, Lisa (2014). “Data narratives: Increasing scholarly value”. Proceedings of the ASIST Annual meeting, v. 51, n. 1, pp. 1-4.
  • Roberts, Graham (2018). “Augmented reality: how we’ll bring the news into your home”. The New York Times, 1 February.
  • Ryan, Marie-Laure (ed.) (2004). Narrative across media: The languages of storytelling. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN: 978 0 8032 4563 1
  • Salaverría, Ramón (2015). “Los labs como fórmula de innovación en los medios”. El profesional de la información, v. 24, n. 4, pp. 397-404.
  • Schultz, Tanjev (1999). “Interactive options in online journalism: a content analysis of 100 US newspapers”. Journal of computer mediated communication, v. 5, n. 1, JCMC513.
  • Segel, Edward; Heer, Jeffrey (2010). “Narrative visualization: Telling stories with data”. IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, v. 16, n. 6, pp. 1139-1148.
  • Smiciklas, Mark (2012). The power of infographics: Using pictures to communicate and connect with your audiences. Indianapolis: Pearson Education. ISBN: 978 0 789749499
  • Soler-Adillon, Joan; Sora, Carles; Freixa, Pere; Ribas, J. Ignasi (2016). “Perfil del profesional de la comunicación interactiva: fundamentos, actualidad y perspectivas”. El profesional de la información, v. 25, n. 2, pp. 196-208.
  • Stikeleather, Jim (2013). “The three elements of successful data visualizations”. Harvard business review.
  • Tang, Nan; Wu, Eugene; Li, Guoliang (2019). “Towards democratizing relational data visualization”. In: Proceedings of the 2019 International conference on management of data. ACM, pp. 2025-2030.
  • Tejedor-Calvo, Santiago; Romero-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Moncada-Moncada, Andrés-José; Alencar-Dornelles, Mariana (2020). “Journalism that tells the future: possibilities and journalistic scenarios for augmented reality”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 6, e290602.
  • Tufte, Edward R. (1983). The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire: Graphic Press. ISBN: 1930824130
  • Tulloch, Christopher; Ramon, Xavier (2017). “Take five: How Sports illustrated and L’équipe redefine the long-form sports journalism genre”. Digital journalism, v. 5, n. 5, pp. 652-672.
  • Uricchio, William (2016): Mapping the intersection of two cultures: Interactive documentary and digital journalism. Cambridge: MIT Open Documentary Lab.
  • Van-Krieken, Kobie; Sanders, José (2019). “What is narrative journalism? A systematic review and an empirical agenda”. Journalism, v. 22, n. 6, pp. 1393-1412.
  • Walsh, Richard (2011). “Emergent narrative in interactive media”. Narrative, v. 19, n. 1, pp. 72-85.
  • Wang, Guan; Gu, Wenying; Suh, Ayoung (2018). “The effects of 360-degree VR videos on audience engagement: evidence from The New York Times”. International conference on HCI in business, government, and organizations, pp. 217-235. Cham: Springer.
  • Wang, Yixue; Diakopoulos, Nicholas (2021). “Journalistic source discovery: Supporting the identification of news sources in user generated content”. Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on human factors in computing systems, CHI (v. 21) [pre-print].
  • Weber, Wibke; Rall, Hannes (2012). “Data visualization in online journalism and its implications for the production process”. IEEE 16th International conference on information visualisation, pp. 349-356.
  • Winograd, Terry (1997). “From computing machinery to interaction design”. In: Denning, Peter J.; Metcalfe, Robert M. Beyond calculation the next fifty years of computing. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 149-162. ISBN: 0387985883
  • Young, Mary-Lynn; Hermida, Alfred; Fulda, Johanna (2017). “What makes for great data journalism? A content analysis of data journalism awards finalists 2012-2015”. Journalism practice, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 115-135.
  • Zamith, Rodrigo (2019). “Transparency, interactivity, diversity, and information provenance in everyday data journalism”. Digital journalism, v. 7, n. 4, pp. 470-489.